Insemination with donor semen (sperm bank, non-partner donation)
The operation of the semen bank and the use of donor semen require authorisation from the Ministry of Health. This is followed by the implementation of procedures enabling the collection, processing, preservation, storage (banking) and use of semen.
Sperm donation – requirements for the donor
Polish law and regulations in the European Union recommend detailed serological evaluation of sperm donors for infectious and sexually transmitted diseases.
The sperm donors used in Gameta clinics also exceed the requirements set out in the European Union Tissue Directive and the Regulation of the Minister of Health. At our clinics, we also perform detailed genetic testing on sperm donors.
Criteria for the selection of sperm donors
Potential donors, in addition to undergoing detailed screening for infectious and genetic disorders, must also meet the following conditions:
- proper semen quality and sperm count,
- age (18–39),
- medical history and examination,
Blood and urine analysis
During a thorough blood and urine analysis, a complete blood count is performed, as well as tests for:
- determination of AB0 and Rh blood group,
- HIV I/II virus,
- HTLV I/II virus,
- hepatitis B,
- hepatitis C,
- IgG/IgM antibodies against CMV,
Depending on whether the sperm donor travels, we also test for tropical diseases such as:
- Zika virus,
- West Nile Fever.
Insemination with donor semen – genetic risk assessment and testing
To eliminate the risk of genetic defects in children conceived from donor sperm, we carry out a number of tests in various directions. Genetic risk assessment includes:
- family history of disease burden over 3–4 generations analysed by a qualified geneticist,
- karyotype testing,
- screening for cystic fibrosis involving mutations in the gene responsible for the disease (CFTR),
- SMA (spinal muscular atrophy) in all active donors since January 2015,
- isolated hearing loss and hearing impairment (associated with GJB2) for new donors from June 2016,
- alpha and beta thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia (HPLC donor screening and red cell haematology) – there are less than 1 in 1000 carriers of this disease in the Northern European population.
Donor sperm is cryopreserved (frozen) and is usually used for intrauterine insemination; in special cases it can also be used for in vitro fertilisation.
Insemination with donor sperm – indications
- No sperm in the semen – azoospermia (no sperm in the testes – negative testicular biopsy).
- Severe semen abnormalities.
- Failure of in vitro fertilisation-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) due to abnormal semen parameters.
- Hereditary genetic disease of the partner.
COMPARISON OF TESTS REQUIRED FOR DONORS IN POLAND AND AT OUR CLINIC:
|Tests||Poland*||Donor semen insemination programme in Gameta clinic|
|Medical history and examination|
|Biochemical tests Lipidogram Liver and kidney function tests|
|Anti-HIV – 1, 2|
|Hepatitis B virus (Hbs, anti-Hbc)|
|Hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)|
|Hepatitis B virus – nucleic acid amplification technique|
|Hepatitis C virus – nucleic acid amplification technique|
|Blood group AB0|
|Rh group system|
|Genetics – Karyotype|
|Genetics – Cystic fibrosis|
|SMA spinal muscular atrophy|
|Isolated hearing loss and hearing impairment (GJB2)|
|Genetics – Fragile X syndrome|
|Alpha and beta thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia|
|Electrophoresis of blood serum proteins|